### Purpose of mathematics planning

Unit and lesson planning are critical steps in the teaching and learning cycle among assessment, programming, implementation, evaluation and reflection. The objective of the planning process is to provide all students with **appropriate learning experiences** that meet the **demands of the curriculum** in terms of expected learning outcomes.

### Major steps in the planning process

- Relate teaching and learning goals to the Australian Curriculum (ACARA, 2016) relevant year-level descriptions, content and proficiency strands
- Check year-level achievement standards and illustrations of graded work sample portfolios to inform assessment criteria guiding planning process
- Develop challenging but achievable goals, considering the individual learning needs of all students based on diagnostic and formative assessments
- Design sequence of activities, instructional scaffolding and learning extensions that build on existing student knowledge following the ‘gradual release of responsibility’ model (Fisher & Frey, 2007)
- Evaluate achieved learning outcomes to inform subsequent lesson planning and to ensure that all students are on a trajectory to achieve best possible outcomes

### Personal reflection on the process

The described **back-mapping approach** makes teaching and learning goals explicit and central to the planning process. By making learning intentions and expected outcomes explicit to the students at the beginning of each lesson and reviewing both at the end, students can develop a clear understanding of expectations and a reflective practice.

Planning is essential to deliver effective lessons that engage all students with appropriate learning activities. These can be informed by **Bloom’s taxonomy of learning** (Anderson, Krathwohl, & Bloom, 2001), as well as **Gardner’s multiple intelligences** (Gardner, 2006) to cater for the full spectrum of abilities with group work, targeted teacher aide support, differentiated homework and modifications to assessments.

### References

- Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2017). Home/ F-10 Curriculum/ Mathematics.
- Anderson, L. W., Krathwohl, D. R., & Bloom, B. S. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. Allyn & Bacon.
- Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2007). Scaffolded Writing Instruction: Teaching with a Gradual-Release

Framework. Education Review//Reseñas Educativas. - Gardner, H. (2006). Multiple intelligences: New horizons. Basic books.
- Queensland Curriculum and Assessment Authority. (2016). P–10 Mathematics Australian Curriculum and resources.