Teaching and learning Maths: constructing a rubric

Purpose of a rubric

A rubric is a tabular set of criteria for assessing student knowledge, performance or products, informing the teaching and learning practice. Each line details criteria that are being assessed, each column the expected or achieved quality of learning (depth of understanding, extent of knowledge and sophistication of skill) by the student.

Rubrics are an assessment and reporting tool used to make expectations explicit to students, identify areas that require practice, and for self-assessment purposes (State of Victoria, Department of Education and Training, 2013). Rubrics are used to report learning outcomes to students, parents and carers, and can guide them towards flipped-classroom activities to improve individual results.

Key points in constructing a rubric

Formal grade achievements follow the five letter ratings, where ‘C’ indicates that a student is performing at the standard expected of students in that year group (ACARA, 2012).

Descriptors can be adapted and simplified for formative assessment purposes. The teacher selects aspects that are being assessed (criteria) and describes how achievements will be measured. ‘SMART’ criteria (O’Neill, 2000) (‘S’ – specific, ‘M’ – measurable, ‘A’ – attainable and agreed, ‘R’ – relevant to curriculum, ‘T’ – time-bound which means year-level appropriate) and Bloom’s taxonomy (Anderson, Krathwohl, & Bloom, 2001) can guide this process. Rubrics need to be designed and written in a language accessible to students, parents and carers.

Setting SMART goals for your students


This is an example for a 3-criteria, 3-descriptor rubric Year 6 lesson based on content descriptor ACMMG137 “solve problems involving the comparison of lengths and areas using appropriate units“. It is designed for formative teacher assessment, and to provide students with feedback on how they currently meet expectations and what differentiated homework tasks will help them to improve results.

excellent satisfactory practice more!
‘Area’ conceptual understanding

Excellent understanding, demonstrated in designing tangram shapes of equal area

Homework: Solve expert puzzles

You can define and explain ‘area’ but need more practice in applying your knowledge

Homework: Watch tangram movie and play more tangram

Your understanding of area needs more practice

Homework: Review area movie and tangram movie

‘Area’ problems with simple units

You are fluent in generalising any tangram puzzle in terms of parts and multiples of units

Homework: Design a tangram puzzle for the class to solve next lesson

You competently calculate basic areas as parts or multiples of tangram triangles. Practice applying this understanding to more creative tangram figures

Homework: Create figures 1, 3 and 4 and write down the number of small triangles required for each animal head

You can describe the shapes but need more practice to calculate how they relate to each other in terms of ‘area’

Homework: Complete worksheet by writing down the number of small triangles required for each shape

‘Area’ problems with metric units

You are fluent in reframing geometric shapes in ways that allow you to calculate their area

Homework: Work on area calculations for more complex shapes in this worksheet

You can calculate areas of simple geometric forms by describing them as parts or multiples of rectangles. Work towards extending your understanding to complex shapes

Homework: Complete area calculation worksheet

You can measure the sides of geometric shapes but need more practice calculating their related ‘areas’

Homework: Review area movie and calculate these areas of shapes

Structuring slides of associated lesson